Nov 27, 2011


                                                Concept of motivating and meaning of motivating
                The term "motivating is developed from the English word "motive" which is itself derived from tha Latin word "movers". Movers means to move. Motive may be defined as needs, wants, drives or impulses within an individual. It simply means something within an individual that promotes him/her to action. According to Keith Davis" Motives are expression of a person's needs and hence they are personal and internal." Motives are inner impulses that inducted a person to set a certain way. They start and maintain activities and determine the general directed of the behaviors of a person. Motaves give a direction to human behaviors because they are directed towards certain goals. A goals is an outward stimulus for the motive to work. Motivating, thus, means to make an individual works in a desired manner to achieve specific goals.
Motivating may be defined as the process of stimulating or inducing people to take the desired courses of action. In an organizational setting, it is the act of inspiriting employment to work to achieve the desired goals of the organization. Motivating involves arousing need and desires in employees so as to initiate and direct their behavior in a purposeful manner. The main goal of motivating is to influence the desired results. Motivating is the first important determine of productivity or higher performance. Some definitions are given below.
According to Dalto E. Mcfarland,"Motavation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, and strivings or needs direct, control or explain the behavior of human beings."
According to Carrol Shard, "Motivating is a reported urge or tension to move in a given direction or ti achieve a certain goals."
According to Dale S. Beach, "Motivation means a process of willingness to expand energy to achve a goals or reward."
Motivation may, thus, be defined as a combination of forces inspiring a persons at work to intensify his willingness to use his capabilities for the achievement of desired goals

Factors affective decentralizations of authority

Decentralization of authority is a management philosophy. It is systematic distribution f authority to the lower level of organizations. Decentralization decision is taken by the top level management. However, it is not an easy task to determine how much authority should be decentralized or centralized. There are certain factors which determine the decentralization decision in an organization. Some common factors affect decentralization decisions are as follows
1)     Attitude of top level management
The attitude of the top management affects the amount of decentralization's. If top managers have positive attitude and are ready to delegate their power to the lower levels, greater degree of decentralization may be found is such an organization. Generally, owner-managed organization to be more centralization than the professionally managed once.
2)     History of the organization
The history of the organization also affects the decentralization process. If run enterprise has growth up from a small group of person, there is a tendency to centralize authority, but growth of the organization through mergers and acquisitions facilities decentralization.
3)     Size of organization
The size of organization largely affects the extent of decentralization. The large the size of organization, more delegation of authority is required. Thus, large size organizations are more desirable for decentralization than the small once.
4)     Capacity of manager
The ability of manager also affects the decentralization process. If the competent managers are available at lower levels, the organization can move towards decentralization
5)     Nature of activity
Technological changes make the jobs more complex that require decentralization. Generally, basic function like production and distribution are more decentralized than staff function like personnel, research and development, etc.
6)     Organizational strategy and environment
The strategy and environment of an organization influence the market position and its competitive strength. These factors, in turn, affect the degree of decentralization of organization.

Need and importance of decentralizations

As a philosophy, decentralization of authority promotes dispersal of decisions making power to the top level of the organization. This philosophy focuses that the top management should keep minimum authority and should delegate maximum authority of subordinate managers. The need and important of decentralization of authority can be explained as follows.
1)      Relief to top executives.
Decentralization helps to redact the work of top level managers. They can devote greater time and effort to strategic matters by decentralizing of authority for routine decisions.
2)      Quicker and ratter decisions
Decentralization leads to quicker and better decision making as the authority to make decisions are placed in the hands of those who are responsible for executing decisions. The subordinate managers can take very practical and quality decisions as they are well aware of the realities of the situation.
3)      Development of managers
Decentralization philosophy encourage manageress to make decisions and exercise their own judgment. They learn the art of exercising decision making authority. This develops managerial competency.
4)      Higher motivation
Decentralization helps to improve the job satisfaction and morals of lowers level managers by fulfilling their needs for recognition, participation, status and autonomy. It also fosters team-spirit and feeling of cooperation among the subordinates.
5)      Growth and diversification
Decentralization of authority facilitated growth and diversification of organizational activities. It helps to develop and introduce and creativity, it increase both productivity and profitability.
6)      Effective supervision and control
Decentralization also loads to effective supervision and control. Managers at lower levels have adequate authority to make changes in work assignment, to change production schedules, to recommend supervision and to take disciplinary action. Thus, more effective supervision can be exercised. Control can also be made effective by evaluating the performance of each Decentralization units in the light of predetermined standards.

Meaning of decentralization authority

The concept of decentralization is related to the concept of delegation of authority. The decentralization is the fundamental aspects of delegation to the extent that authority in not centralized, it is delegated. Thus, both the centralization and decentralization represent the parties  distribution of authority among managers at different levels.
                Centralization is the degree to which authority and responsibility are retained by higher level manager in an organization rather than being delegated. According to Louis A. Allen, " centralization is the system and consistent reservation of authority at central points within the organization." In such pattern, either the higher level manager reserves the work or if he/she delegates the work, the authority is reserved. Thus majority of the decisions are made by top level management rather than by the actual performed or the job.
Decentralztion of authority is, no dubt, opposite to centralization. It is the systemic dispersal of authority at all level of management for taking decisions and action appropriate at the respective levels. Decentralization is tyeh outcome of delegation of authority. Some poplar definitions of decentralization are given below.
According to Louis A. Allen, "decentralization refers to the systematic effort to delegate to the lower level all authority except that which can be exercised at central points. Decentralization is concerned with the placement of authority with responsibility."
According to Joseph L. massie," Decentralization as an organization concept refers to the pushing decision making to the lower level of the organization."
Decentralization of authority is a management philosophy through which managers at middle and lower level are given the authority to take decisions and actions on matters realizing to their respective area of work. The top level management retains the authority for taking static decisions and formulating policies for the organizations as a whole. Top level management also retains the authority for overall coordination and controlling of the organization. Thus, decentralization is much more than a mere transfer of authority to lower level.

Principles and Importance of delegation of Authority

Principles of delegation of Authority
Principles are the fundamental guideline basis and theories on the basis of which the authorities are delegated.
I) Principles of functional definition
            This principle assures (conform) that delegation of authority should be made to do shorten specific functions and the authorities can be delegated within the functional areas or scope.
II) Principles of expected results
            According this principle authority delegation is the goals, objectives and expected results of the organization for the fulfillment of which authority delegated it is called principles of expected results.
III) Principles of scalar chain
            According to this principle authority is delegated to the immediate sub-ordinates. The mgmt can’t avoid the principle of scalar chain.
IV) Principles of Unity of Command
            While delegating the authority mgmt as well as sub-ordinates should receive all the orders and instructions from one senior or any one authority.
V) Principles of absolutes
            Absolute responsibilities of implementing any organizational job always remains with top level management. Top level management should be responsible or accountable towards the stake holders at all times. Such types of non-transferring of responsibilities is known as principles of absolute responsibility.
VI) Principles of parity of authority & responsibility
            The parity principles says that the authority and responsibility should be equal all times although we can see creations of responsibility at the time delegation of authority but such types of creation is made to manage the regular operation or internal practice only.
VII) Dispersions of operations principles
            The delegation of authority is practice in case of the activities can be dispersed professions as specialized activities can’t be delegated to the lower level.

Importance of delegation of authority
I) It is the tools that support to do the things through the help of other peoples.
            Management is an art it helps to do the work through the help of other people.
II) It facilities quick and fast decisions.
III) Healthy relationship among the employees or among the subordinates.
IV) Successors or executive developers.

Process of steps of Delegation of authority

Process of steps of Delegation of authority
Step 1è Determination of expected results
Step 2è Assignment of job and duties to sub-ordinates
Step 3è Delegation of Authority
Step 4è Fixation of Responsibility
Step 5è Evaluation of Performance
Step 1:             The first step of delegation process is related with the determination of goals or objectives or desire results. The expected results are the predetermined outcome that are to be achieve from doing the jobs or works.
Step 2:             After determining the expected results or objectives the management assigns or gives task, duties and assignments to the lower levels or sub-ordinates.
Step 3:             In this steps top level management grants or transfer required power and authority to the sub-ordinates to perform or execute the assign task or job.
Step 4:             After assigning the job and providing powers or authorities to the sub-ordinates. It is essential to make them responsible to complete the jobs. Such types of creating responsibilities can be saved as fining the responsibilities.
Step 5:             At last steps, the management should evaluate the monitor measure the results of the jobs and assignments performed by the sub-ordinates. Based on such evaluation, management make strategies in coming days.

Delegation (transfer) of Authority

Delegation of authority is the process of assigning shorten duties and assignments to the sub-ordinates or individual or units and giving power or authority to them to executed such assign task delegation is the major technique or tools that supports to conduct theyo's through other peoples.
Delegation of authorities provides the environment of making quick decision by the sub-ordinates the authorities should always be delegated with the responsibilities/ assignments or duties.
According to Theo Hayman, “Del of Authority means granting of authority to subordinates to operate within prescribed limits.
F.G. Moore, “Delegation means assigning worries to other and give them authority to dolt.”
After analyzing above mention definitions we can conclude that delegation of authority is giving of the authority to the sub-ordinates to perform the assigned job within the organization limitations. It is one of the importance steps of organizing process hence managing process. Delegation fulfills the requirements of managing the activities done through other peoples.